Практическое пособие для студентов IV курса специальности «Психология», страница 6

Is the silent language of the body universal? Charles Darwin speculated that in prehistoric times, before humans were able to communicate in words, their ability to convey threats, greetings, and submission with facial expressions helped them to survive. He developed his thesis that our facial expressions are a product of evolution and are therefore inborn. It was found out that all humans express the basic emotions by similar facial expressions, which are common, the world over. But the problem with such interpretations is that a given emotion (happiness, fear, etc.) can be expressed with a number of different postures and gestures, and any given posture (such as folded arms) may express different emotions. Some years ago, psychologist Otto Klineberg (1938) noted that in Chinese Literature people clapped their hands to express worry or disappointment, laughed a great « ho-ho » to express anger, and stuck out their tongues to show surprise. Similarly, the « thumbs up » and « A-OK »signs of American culture would be interpreted as insults in certain other cultures.

Thus, be on your guard, dear friend, while communicating with foreigners! Remember that some of your gestures, which seem to be inoffensive in your country, may insult greatly your interlocutor.

Words and expressions to remember:

a)  Species – человеческий род

Disrupt – разрушать, срывать

be aroused – быть возбужденным

stalk - подкрадываться

tense – напрягаться, натягиваться

pour into – выделять

bloodstream - кровь

respiration rate - потоотделение

digestion - пищеварение

divert – отводить, отвлекать

perspire - потеть

release – выпускать, выбрасывать

to be orchestrated – быть вызванным (какой-то причиной)

ambiguous – двусмысленный, неопределённый, неясный

deceiving -  обманчивый

speculate – размышлять, раздумывать, делать предположения

posture – поза

b)  physiological arousal – физиологическое возбуждение

conscious experience - осознание

your stomach develops butterflies – начинать сильно нервничать

a stirred-up body – возбуждённое тело

sympathetic neural system – симпатическая нервная система

parasympathetic neural centers – парасимпатические нервные центры

trigger sustained stress – вызывать устойчивый стресс

facial expressions – выражения лица

Lexical Exercises

1.  Look at the following words and circle the five that are the most difficult for you. Then in groups of four share your list and help one another understand the meaning of those words. Try to explain their meanings in English.


physiological arousal

conscious experience

respiration rate

internal organs

sympathetic neural system


parasympathetic neural system

sustained stress

genital response




silent language

facial expressions

2.Give Russian equivalents of the words given above.

3.Find in the text the sentences in which these words are used and translate them in Russian.

4.Find in the text the equivalents of the following:

Экспрессивное поведение, сильно нервничать, реакция (организма), сердечный ритм, реакция гениталий, надпочечные железы, кровяное давление, устойчивый стресс, стиснутые зубы, потеть, пищеварение, поддерживать.

5.Build up new sentences in Russian using the words given above and translate them into English.

6.Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the list given below.

1)  As people’s experience illustrates, emotions involve a mixture of ....

2)  Your body ... itself for action in less noticeable ways.

3)  To help burn the sugar, your ... increases to supply the needed extra ...

4)  Your ... slows , diverting blood from your ... organs to your ...

5)  ... triggered by sustained stress, taxes the body.

6)  ... can be accompanied by different physiological ...

7)  The sexually stimulated person ... experience a genital response.