Практическое пособие для студентов IV курса специальности «Психология», страница 3

A drive theory, survival behaviors, the cognitive perspective, instincts, motivates, an organism, hierarchy of needs, psychological, is energized, incentives, pulled, our behavior, external stimulus, pushed, the need, motivating.

  1. Complete the following sentences according to the text. Add as much information as possible.

1.  Under Darwin’s influence, behavior came to be viewed as ... .

2.  According to the drive theory of motivation ... .

3.  When a biological need increases ... .

4.  But drive reduction motivates survival behaviors such as ... .

5.  Despite all our biological needs satisfied ...

6.  This is where our individual learning histories influence ... .

7.  There’s no denying the fact that the particular needs ... .

8.  Abraham Maslow proposed one possible hierarchy of needs ... .

9.  Beyond this, says Maslow, lie ... .

10.  Maslow’s specific hierarchy is somewhat arbitrary ... .

  1. Put your own questions to the text and ask your group-mates to answer them.
  1. Look through the text and write out all the words and expressions concerning psychology.
  1. Give  a written translation of the following extract :

“According to the drive theory of motivation...” up to “It means, that despite all our biological needs satisfied...”

  1. Render the following extract in English:

Мотивация рассматривается психологами как источник активности и как источник направленности личности на предметы и явления действительности, в результате чего и возникает активность. Некоторые психологи отмечают, что наличие одной лишь потребности, которая переживается человеком в виде желаний или влечений, ещё недостаточно, чтобы деятельность осуществилась. Для этого необходим объект, который явился бы побудителем деятельности, то, что побуждает эту деятельность, направляет её на удовлетворение определённой потребности, а именно – мотив.

Speech Practice

1. Discuss the text using the questions given below

1)  What is a motivation?

2)  What do you know about the drive theory of motivation?

3)  What is the difference between a need and an incentive?

4)  Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.

2. Look through the text and give an oral summary of the concepts of motivation.

3. Write down a plan of the text.

4. Read the text once again and retell it according to your plan.

Supplementary Reading

Read the text and discuss it using the questions that follow.

The Main Motives Which Energize And Direct Our Behavior.

Hunger Perhaps the most obvious kind of motivations are those that result directly from physical needs. Biological motives such as hunger and thirst are assumed to be « built-in », meaning that they exist from birth. You don’t have to learn to feel thirsty or hungry. If you go without food or water for a sufficient time, the motivation to obtain those substances occurs automatically. You then want a certain amount of food or water until the condition is alleviated, bringing back to your original stable point. Psychologists refer to this built-in tendency to maintain stability as homeostasis. Any deviation from the optimal level will create a need. The need usually will produce a drive, which is the motivational force for action.

According to the psychological researches, the inner push of hunger originates not primarily from the stomach’s pangs, but from variations in body chemistry. For example, we are likely to feel hungry when our glucose levels are low and our insulin levels are high. This information is monitored by the lateral and ventromedial areas of the hypothalamus, which regulate the body’s weight by influencing our feelings of hunger and satiety. To regain its set-point weight, the body also adjusts, is metabolic rate of energy expenditure.