Практическое пособие для студентов IV курса специальности «Психология», страница 2

There ‘s no denying the fact, that the particular needs that motivate our behavior depend on which needs are unmet and, among those, which are the most fundamental. Abraham Maslow (1970) proposed one possible hierarchy of needs, at the base of which are our psychological needs, such as for food, water, and shelter. Only if these needs are met are people prompted to meet their need for safety, and then to meet the uniquely human needs to give and receive love, and to enjoy self-esteem. Beyond this, says Maslow, lie the highest order needs: to actualize one’s full potential and achieve a spiritual perspective that transcends ordinary experience.

Maslow ‘s specific hierarchy is somewhat arbitrary. Moreover, the order of such needs is not universally fixed (people have, for example, starved themselves to make a political statement). Nevertheless, the simple idea that some motives are more compelling than others – until they are satisfied – is appealing.

Words and expressions to remember:

a) Motivate – мотивировать

Behavior – поведение

Goal – цель

Instinct - инстинкт

Self-abasement - самоунижение

Self-assertion – отстаивание своих прав           

Drive – побуждение, стимул

Motivation – мотивация

Need – потребность

Tissue –ткань (биол.)

Deficit – дефицит, нехватка

Deprivation – потеря, лишение

Replenish – снова наполнять, пополнять

Stores – запасы

Aroused – возбуждённый

Consequence – 1) последствия , 2) значение, важность

Survival – выживание

Applicable – применимый, пригодный, подходящий

External – внешний

Stimulation – стимулирование

Seeming – кажущийся

Push – !) толкать; 2) побуждать

Incentive – побуждение, стимул

Disapproval – неодобрение, осуждение

Transcend – переступать пределы, превосходить, превышать

Arbitrary – произвольный

Appealing – 1) трогательный; 2) привлекательный

b) a drive theory of motivation – мотивационная теория стимула

drive reduction – ослабление стимула

cognitive perspective – познавательный аспект

hierarchy of needs – иерархия потребностей

actualize one’s full potential – полностью реализовать чьи-либо возможности

spiritual perspective – душевный аспект

Lexical Exercises

1.  Look at the following words and circle the five that are the most difficult for you. Then in groups of four share your list and help one another understand the meaning of those words. Try to explain their meanings in English.

















  1. Give Russian equivalents of the words given above.
  1. Find in the text the sentences in which these words are used and translate them in Russian.
  1. Find in the text the equivalents of the following :

Применимый, возбуждённый, познавательный, осуждение, побуждение, исследовать, внутренний, возбуждать, внешний стимул, стимулировать, пополнять запасы, выживание.

  1. Build up new sentences in Russian using the words given above and translate them into English.
  2. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the list given below.

1.  Behavior is viewed as being controlled by biological forces, such as… .

2.  Psychologists turned to … of motivation.

3.  A biological need creates an aroused state, driving … to satisfy … .

4.  Drive reduction … such as eating and drinking.

5.  … gained prominence in psychology.

6.  We are not only … by our needs, but … by … we perceive in the environment.

7.  An incentive is any … that has come to have positive or negative value in …

8.  Behavior … and directed by the external incentives.

9.  Abraham Maslow proposed one possible … .

10.  At the base of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs are our … needs.