Практическое пособие для студентов IV курса специальности «Психология», страница 13

1)  What signs can forewarn friends, relatives, and parents about suicide?

2)  What category of people commits suicide? Are there any differences between each group?

3)  When does suicide occur?

4)  What is suicide in people of all ages?

5)  Is suicide the way-out of all the problems?

Summing Up: Terms and Concepts to Remember

Amnesia Loss of memory. Psychogenic amnesia, a dissociative disorder, is selective memory           loss often brought on by extreme stress.

Antisocial personality    A personality disorder in which the person (usually a male) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.

Anxiety disorder    Psychological disorders characterized by distressing persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.

Bipolar disorder    A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited, hyperactive, wildly optimistic state of mania.

Conversion disorder    Now rare, a somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no psychological basis can be found.

Delusions    False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders. 

Dissociative disorders    Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.

Fugue    A dissociative disorder in which amnesia is accompanied by physical flight from one’s home and identity.

Hypochondriasis    A somatoform disorder in which a person misinterests normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease.

Major depression    A mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.

Mania    A hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.

Mood disorders    Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes.

Multiple personality disorder     A formerly rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder     An anxiety disorder in which a person is troubled by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and /or actions (compulsions).

Personality disorders    Psychological disorders characterized by enduring, maladaptive character traits.

Phobic disorder     An anxiety disorder in which a person is troubled by phobia – a persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation.      

Psychological disorder     Behavior that is typically defined on the basis of being a typical, disturbing, maladaptive, and unjustifiable.

Psychotic disorder    Psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality experiencing irrational ideas and disturbed perceptions.  

Schizophrenia     A group of psychotic disorders characterized by disorganized thinking, disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotions and actions.

Somatoform disorder     Psychological disorder in which the symptoms take somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause.

Unit 4

Psychological Disorders and Their Therapy

Read and translate the text.

The history of our attempts to treat psychological disorders reveals how mystifying and intractable we have found these problems to be. In other realms of science our record of progress is impressive; in the 2 200 years since Eratosthenes correctly estimated the earth’s circumference, we have charted the heavens, explored the solar system, reconstructed the basis history of life on earth, cracked the genetic code, and eliminated or found cures for all sorts of diseases.